University of Minnesota Breast Center | Masonic Cancer Center, First Floor | 424 Harvard Street Southeast | Minneapolis, MN 55455

Centennial Lakes Medical Center | 7373 France Avenue South, Suite 510 | Edina, MN 55435-4534

(612) 273-9670 Appointment scheduling for both locations | (612) 625-0697 Office | (612) 624-4441 Fax

Links to Dr. Cunningham's Extensive Publications:


* Denotes primary author or principal investigator.

  1. *Cunningham, B.L., Shaw, W.W., Mayfield, J.K., and Shons, A.R.: Free flap reconstruction of the lower extremity. Minn. Med. 62:707-712, 1979.
  2. *Cunningham, B.L., Nivatvongs, S., and Shons, A.R.: Fournier's syndrome following anorectal examination and mucosal biopsy. Dis. Colon & Rectum 22:51-56, 1979.
  3. *Cunningham, B.L., and Shons, A.R.: Free flap transfers in rats using an irradiated recipient site. Brit. J. Plast. Surg. 32:137‑140, 1979.
  4. Lewis, V.L., Cunningham, B.L., and Hugo, N.E.: V‑Y retroposition flap. Ann. Plast. Surg. 6:37-43, 1981.
  5. *McKinney, P., Cunningham, B.L.: New Approaches to breast reconstruction. Illinois Medical Journal, 169: (6) 367‑370, June 1981.
  6. *Cunningham, B.L., and Shons, A.R.: Upper Extremity ‑ Replantation Surgery. Minn. Med. 68:463‑466, 1982.
  7. *Geller, H.S., Tofte, R.W., and Cunningham, B.L.: Aeromonas hydrophila wound infection of the hand initially presenting as clostridial myonecrosis. J. Hand Surg. 8 333‑335, 1983.
  8. *Cunningham, B.L., and McKinney, P.: Patient acceptance of dissociative anesthetics. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 72: 22‑26, July 1983.
  9. Shons, A.R., and Cunningham, B.L.: Free flap transfers for extremity coverage and salvage. J. Vascular Surgery, Mar/Apr: 101‑107, 1984.
  10. *Cunningham, B.L., and Shons, A.R.: Replantation surgery and microsurgical technique. J. Vascular Surgery 18:20‑24, Jan/Feb 1984.
  11. *Press, B.H.J., Christensen, M., Cunningham, B.L.: In situ vein bypass in the upper extremity; Application of microsurgical techniques. Europ. Surgical Research. 18:95-99, 1986.
  12. *Schubert,W., Guzman‑Stein, G., Ahrenholz, D.H., Solem, L.D. , Cunningham, B.L.: Free muscle flap for treatment of iatrogenic pneumocephalus. Lancet 1:1486‑1487, 1987.
  13. *Schubert, W., Hunter D.W., Guzman‑Stein, G., Ahrenholz, D.H., Solem, L.D., Dressel, T., Cunningham, B.L.: The use of Streptokinase for the salvage of a free flap: a case report and review of the use of thrombolytic therapy. Microsurgery, 8:117‑121, 1987.
  14. Schubert, W., Guzman‑Stein, G., Van der Vliet, J.A., Cunningham, B.L.: Pentoxifylline and pedicle flap survival. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 79:492, 1987.
  15. *Schubert, W., Kimberley, B., Guzman‑Stein, G., Cunningham, B.L.: The use of labial artery for replantation of the lip and chin. Ann. Plast. Surg. 20:256‑260, 1988.
  16. *Schubert, W., Guzman‑Stein, G., Cunningham, B.L.: A new method for placement of tissue expanders. Ann. Plast. Surg. 20:191‑193, 1988.
  17. *Schubert, W., Guzman‑Stein, G., Hope, R., Ahrenholz, D.H., Solem, L.D., Cunningham, B.L.: Scalping injuries; New technique for stabilization of flaps to the skull. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 81:780‑782, 1988.
  18. *Guzman‑Stein, G., Schubert, W., Najarian, D.W., Press, B.H.J., Cunningham, B.L.: Composite in situ vein bypass for upper extremity revascularization. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 83:533‑536, 1989.
  19. *Sinow, J.D. and Cunningham, B.L.: Postmastectomy brachial plexus injury exacerbated by tissue expansion. Ann. Plast. Surg. 27:368-370, 1991.
  20. Press, B.H.J., Chiu, D.T.W., and Cunningham, B.L.: The rectus abdominis muscle in difficult problems of hand soft tissue reconstruction. Brit. J. Plast. Surg. 43: 419-425, 1990.
  21. *Derby, L.D., Sinow J.D., Bowers, L.D., and Cunningham, B.L.: Quantitative analysis of lidocaine hydrochloride delivery by diffusion across tissue expander membranes. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 89:900-907, 1992.
  22. *Workman, M.L., Kaye, A.V., Anderson, P.M., and Cunningham, B.L.: Malignant melanoma with evidence of maturation arising from a giant congenital neoceoloular nevus. Ann. Plast. Surg. 28:381-385, 1992.
  23. *Sinow, J.D., Halvorsen, Jr. R.A., Matts, J.P., Schubert, W., Letourneau, J.G., and Cunningham, B.L.: Chest-wall deformity after tissue expansion for breast reconstruction. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 88:998-1004, Dec., 1991.
  24. *Workman, M.L., Bailey, D.F., and Cunningham, B.L.: Popliteal-based filleted lower leg musculocutaneous free-flap coverage of a hemipelvectomy defect. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 89:326-329, 1992.
  25. *Sinow, J.D., Cunningham, B.L.: Intraluminal Lidocaine for Analgesia after Tissue Expansion: A Double-Blind Prospective Trial in Breast Reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 28:320-325, April 1992.
  26. Schubert, W., Quillopa, N., Siegel, D.A., Hollander, H.L., Aldridge, J.H., and Cunningham, B.L.: The anatomical position of the medial and lateral canthus. Surg. Forum 43:598-599, 1992.
  27. Cunningham, B.L. and Landis, G.H.: A study of the outcome of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery Research Grant Program. Plast.Reconstr.Surg., v. 92, p. 1397-1401.
  28. *Workman, M.L., Christensen, M., Griffiths, H.J. and Cunningham, B.L.: Magnetic resonance imaging of the nose with surface coils: A new technique to evaluate functional and aesthetic problems. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 91:1154-1158, 1993.
  29. *Cunningham, B.L.: Enhanced activity of lysosomal beta-galactosidase after silicone implantation - an experimental study in rats. (Invited Comment) J. Lab. Clin. Med. 121:734-736, 1993.
  30. Everson LI, Parantainen H, Detlie T, Stillman AE, Olson PN, Landis G, Foshager MC, Cunningham B, Griffiths HJ.: Diagnosis of breast implant rupture: imaging findings and relative efficacies of imaging techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1994 Jul;163(1):57-60
  31. Palmon LU, Foshager MC, Parantainen H, Everson LI, Cunningham B. Ruptured or intact: what can linear echoes within silicone breast implants tell us?
    AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997 Jun;168(6):1595-8.
  32. Embrey, M., Adams, E.E., Cunningham, B.L., Peters, W., Young, V.L. and Carlos, G.L.: A review of the literature on the etiology of capsular contracture and a pilot study to determine the outcome of capsular contracture interventions. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 23:197-206, 1999.
  33. Embrey, M., Adams, E.E., Cunningham, B.L., Peters, W., Young, V. L. and Carlo, G.L.: Factors associated with breast implant rupture: Pilot of a retrospective analysis. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 23:207-212, 1999
  34. *Cunningham BL, Lokeh A, Gutowski KA. Saline-filled breast implant safety and efficacy: a multicenter retrospective review. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000 May;105(6):2143-9; discussion 2150-1
  35. *Cunningham, B.L.: Discussion: Textured–Surface Saline-Filled Breast Implants for Augmentation Mammaplasty Plast. Reconstr. Surg 105 ():1553-1554, 2000
  36. *Cunningham, B.L.: Discussion: Prospective Analysis of Psychosocial Outcomes in Breast Reconstruction: One-Year Posteroperative Results from the Michigan Breast Reconstruction outcome Study by Wilkins, E.G. et al. Plast Reconstr. Surg 106 (5):1026-27.
  37. *Gutowski, KA, GT Mesna, BL Cunningham, 1997, Saline-filled breast implants: a Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation multicenter outcomes study: Plast.Reconstr.Surg., v. 100, p. 1019-1027.
  38. *Medot, M, GH Landis, CE McGregor, KA Gutowski, MC Foshager, HJ Griffiths, BL Cunningham, 1997, Effects of capsular contracture on ultrasonic screening for silicone gel breast implant rupture: Ann.Plast.Surg., v. 39, p. 337-341.
  39. Kerrigan CL, Collins ED, Striplin D, Kim HM, Wilkins E, Cunningham B, Lowery J. The health burden of breast hypertrophy. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 108: 1591-99, 2001.
  40. *Cunningham BL and McKinney P. The Alar Scroll: An Important Anatomical Structure in Lobular Surgery. Operative Techniques in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 7(4): p. 187-193, 2000.
  41. Collins ED, Kerrigan CL, Kim M, Lowery JC, Striplin DT, Cunningham B, Wilkins EG. The effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical interventions in relieving the symptoms of macromastia. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 109:1556-1566, 2002.
  42. Kerrigan CL, Collins ED, Kim HM, Schnur PL, Wilkins E, Cunningham B, Lowery J. Reduction mammoplasty: defining medical necessity. Med Decis Making 2002 May-Jun;22(3):208-17.
  43. *Chao JD, Memmel HC, Redding JF, Egan L, Odom LC, Casas LA. Discussion by Bruce L. Cunningham, M.D.Reduction Mammaplasty Is a Functional Operation, Improving Quality of Life in Symptomatic Women: A Prospective, Single-Center Breast Reduction Outcome Study. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 110(7): 1653-1654; Dec 2002.
  44. *Discussion: ”Long-term health status of Danish women with silicone breast implants” Vibeke B. Breiting, MD, Lisbet R. Hölmich, MD, Bodil Brandt, MD, Jon P. Fryzek, PhD, Mette S. Wolthers, MD, Kimm Kjøller, MD, Joseph K. McLaughlin, PhD, Allan Wiik, MD, DMSc and Søren Friss, MD. Invited discussion: Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 114(1):227-228, July 2004


  1. *Cunningham, B.L., Gear, A.J.L., Kerrigan, C.L., Collins, E.D.: BRAVO complications analysis. In press- Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
  2. *Development of the Breast Evaluation Questionnaire for Use with Breast Surgery Patients. Bruce L Cunningham, M.D. Rebecca Anderson, Ph.D, Submitted to Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
  3. *Discussion: Measuring Outcomes in Plastic Surgery: Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Abdominoplasty Patients (Bolton et al) JPRS, in press
  4. Seven Year Results of Clinical Outcome of Saline breast implantation for augmentation or reconstruction; a multi- center retrospective cohort study.